When we take refuge to somebody or something, it better be non deceiving. That’s very important. Non deceiving aspect of whole refuge practice and refuge concept is very very important. If I gave you some sesame seed and tell you that you can squeeze this and you might have some oil. Then it’s kind of not deceiving because there is supposedly oil inside the sesame seed. But if I gave you something else, like a stone or a paper, then that is a deception. So this, the whole process, whole logic or philosophy of non deception, non deceiving aspect of the refuge, that’s a very very important element of Buddhist philosophy of refuge. Why take refuge to the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Are they really non deceiving? It has to bear fruit you know, it has to answer your quest.
Outer, Inner and Secret Refuge, London 2010