Broadly speaking mahayana people, mahayana path, talk about two kind of confusion or two kinds of defilements. Okay in a very simple language, the first one is defilement of clinging to the self, meaning clinging to anything that is related to the self or the ego. And then in ?? own word, ?..?, now this is a really profound statement, so we are now going through the fourth one. The fourth point.
According to the Mahayana, those who have studied Madhyamika, it should be either for you. If you have studied Madhyamikavatara remember someone like Chandrakirti or even Shantideva whom I have been quoting again and again, ?.?, for instance, according to the Madhyamika, specially Prasangika Madhyamika, when you analyze the ultimate truth, when you analyze the ultimate truth with your logic and analytical tool and example, ?? we call it, on top of that sometimes we use the Buddha’s quotation, but Buddha’s quotation is sort of almost like the not most effective tool. The most effective tool is the analogy and – I am not saying that Buddha’s statement is kind of useless, it only works for those who are already devoted to the Buddha. Cannot be used for those who are skeptical. So you can use analogy and analytical tool. So when you search the ultimate truth, according to people like Shantideva or Chandrakirti or Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, they say you search and search and search and if you find something you are wrong. That is basically what they are saying. If you search and search and search, ?..? we call it, if you really search and search and search and finally find an ah, this is it, now this has to be the final, this has to be the reality, this is sort of indisputable reality then you are wrong. That is really the Prasangika Madhyamika statement. And it is wonderful actually.
Okay I was telling you, two kind of defilements in the mahayana they emphasize, one is clinging to the self and anything that is related to the self. Such as this my bag, anything like that. The second is, as you try to find the truth, ultimate truth, and if you find one, that is the second kind of confusion or defilement. The later intellectual or little academic, maybe, but we have to go through this anyway and you might get used to this. Because this is the most important anyway.